The significance of male and female reproductive strategies for male reproductive success in wild longtailed macaques Macaca fascicularis. Sexual swellings and estrogen concentrations as fertility indicators and cues for male consort decisions in wild baboons". The premolars or bicuspids and molarswith their multiple cuspsare used to grind and smash food. The obvious-ovulation or paternity confidence hypothesis of sexual swellings was first suggested by Hamilton in As one of the more recent hypotheses, the graded-signals hypothesis still has limited research supporting it as the evolutionary function of sexual swellings. Recommended articles Citing articles 0. Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
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It has been identified that species which exhibit exaggerated sexual swellings predominantly live in multi-male social systems; large social groups with multiple adults of both sexes, as well as their offspring.
Like size, firmness also varies considerably across the cycle. This uncertainty has two contrasting outcomes: Research remains fairly consistent across animal species; female yellow baboons Papio cynocephalus who struggle to conceive are, on average, those that display the most prominent sexual swellings. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. According to Stallman and Froehlich's assessment, the hypothesis predicts monandry i. Although Pagel performed a field experiment which found support for all predictions of the hypothesis through the observation of olive baboons Papio anubis its methodology has since been criticised,   and subsequent research has failed to find empirical evidence that sexual swellings reliably indicate female quality in this,  and other, species e. However, New World monkeys do not have it.
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